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Lab 8: Data-Flow Analysis


In this lab, you define a simple data-flow analysis for MiniJava in FlowSpec. The concepts you are going to use in FlowSpec are described in the following paper:

  • Jeff Smits, Eelco Visser. FlowSpec: declarative dataflow analysis specification. In Benoît Combemale, Marjan Mernik, Bernhard Rumpe, editors, Proceedings of the 10th ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Software Language Engineering, SLE 2017, Vancouver, BC, Canada, October 23-24, 2017. pages 221-231, ACM, 2017.

Update your Spoofax installation for this lab! See the update instructions.

Documentation for FlowSpec can be found online at FlowSpec Documentation. For a complete overview of the language, use the FlowSpec Language Reference. The FlowSpec Configuration documentation describes how to configure logging and inspect the results of analysis.



Specify a reaching definitions analysis for MiniJava in FlowSpec. The specification should include:

  1. The control-flow of methods (including the main method) in MiniJava, including
    • blocks,
    • if statements,
    • while loops,
    • print statements,
    • assignments,
    • and array assignments.
  2. Reaching definitions analysis, taking into account
    • parameters,
    • variables,
    • assignments,
    • and array assignments.
  3. Messages on use of uninitialized variables, in particular
    • errors on uninitialized variables.


You need to submit your MiniJava project with a merge request against branch assignment-8-submission on GitLab. The Git documentation explains how to file such a request.

The deadline for submission is November 30, 2019.


You can earn up to 100 points for the correctness of your data-flow analysis. Therefore, we run several test cases against your implementation. You earn points, when your implementation passes test cases. The total number of points depends on how many test cases you pass in each of the following groups:

  • control flow (35 points)
    • correct root nodes
    • nodes for parameters and variables
    • nodes for expressions
    • control-flow for statements
    • node for print statement
  • reaching definitions analysis (35 points)
    • start value of the analysis
    • rules for parameter and variable definitions
    • rules for assignments
  • error messages (20 points)
    • errors on the usage of uninitialized variables
    • errors on the usage of variables that may be uninitialized
  • challenge (10 points)
    • warning on the usage of variables that may be uninitialized but aren’t guaranteed to be uninitialized
    • only errors on the usage of variables that must be uninitialized

Early Feedback

We provide early feedback for your language implementation. This feedback gives you an indication which parts of your name and type analysis might still be wrong. It includes a summary on how many tests you pass and how many points you earn by passing them. You have 3 early feedback attempts.

Detailed Instructions


GitLab Repository

We provide you with a template for this assignment in the assignment-8-template branch. See the Git documentation on how to check out this branch.

The template contains 2 Maven projects:

  • minijava: an initial MiniJava project that covers concrete and abstract syntax, desugarings, and name and type analysis,
  • minijava.example: an empty project for your example MiniJava programs,

Importing projects into Eclipse

The projects from the template have to be imported into Eclipse:

  1. Start Eclipse.
  2. Select your workspace.
  3. Import the projects into your workspace:
    1. Right-click into the Package Explorer.
    2. Select Import… from the context menu.
    3. Choose Maven -> Existing Maven Projects from the list.
    4. Press next.
    5. Select the root of your Git repository.
    6. Select all projects.
    7. Make sure that Copy projects into workspace is off.
    8. Press finish

If you get an error about Resource '/.org.eclipse.jdt.core.external.folders' already exists, you can safely ignore that.


Control-flow is specified as control-flow rules in .flo files. FlowSpec files must go in the trans/analysis directory. The module name at the top of the file should match the filename relative to trans. For example, the file trans/analysis/control.flo starts as:

module analysis/control

Control-flow rules

The rules match on an AST constructor, and define the control-flow of that construct in terms of nodes, control-flow of the subtrees, and the surrounding control-flow graph.

control-flow rules // Lists

  Cons(h, t) = entry -> h -> t -> exit
  Nil() = entry -> exit

The surrounding control-flow are the entry and exit nodes. You can use matched subtrees from the AST as placeholders for their control-flow. You can also create a control-flow graph node associated with an AST node using node matchedVar. Most commonly you want to add a node to the control-flow graph corresponding to the entire matched tree on the left. You can use this for that situation:

UnExp(_, e) = entry -> e -> this -> exit

At the leaves of the AST you will then see patterns such as entry -> this -> exit. Since this is so common, there is another shortcut for this. This is the node rule, where you only match the AST pattern, and do not need a right-hand side:

node True()

The right-hand side of a control-flow rule really specifies a list of edges, separated by commas. Because most control-flow is simply a chain, you can chain multiple edges together.

There can only be one rule that matches on a certain constructor.

Control-flow root

A control-flow graph is usually rooted at the procedure – or in MiniJava’s case method – level. A special root rule specifies this, and uses an explicit start and end node instead of the usual contextual entry and exit.

root Method(_, _, params, vars, body, ret) = start -> ... -> end


A data-flow analysis in FlowSpec is built on a data-flow property. This property is defined in a properties section where it is given a name and a lattice. The lattice is a combination of a type and some operations that automatically deal with splitting and merging the data when the control-flow splits and merges.


  live: MaySet(name)


A data-flow analysis is either a forward or a backward analysis. A forward analysis specifies what information is available at the start of the control-flow, a backward analysis specifies what information is available at the end of the control-flow.

property rules

  live(Method(_, _, _, _, _, _).end) = {}

When the direction of a data-flow analysis is established with such a rule, FlowSpec will automatically propagate information along that direction. Therefore you only need to write rules for control-flow nodes that have a special meaning in your analysis. You again use AST patterns, the ones associated with the control-flow graph nodes, to match on the left side. But now you also give a name to the neighboring control-flow graph node using an edge pattern:

  live(VarRef(n) -> next) = live(next) \/ { Var{n} }

In this example analysis, the backward direction is visible in that we name the next node on the right-hand side of the arrow, and match the left-hand side of the arrow. We define the liveness information of the matched VarRef here. Therefore by making it equal to the information of next (and more), we propagate information backward through the graph.


FlowSpec expressions that you are likely to need are set operations. These are union (\/), intersection (/\), minus (\), containment (in), set construction ({ elements, go, here }), and comprehension ({ new | old <- set, conditions }: create a set with elements new where you go over all elements old and check that the conditions hold).

Reaching definitions

You will implement a classic data-flow analysis called reaching definitions. This analysis gives information about where a variable was last assigned a value. Note that a variable could be last assigned in multiple places at once if you check this information after a merge in control-flow.

We use this analysis to detect whether variables are initialized before they are used. Fields are always initialized and do not need to be taken into consideration in your analysis. For this analysis you do not need to track reaching definitions within arrays either.

Your analysis should work on a set of pairs, this is what the grading code expects (Set(name * Option(position))). The first part of the pair is the name. The second part of the pair is a Option(position) where the assignment took place. An option can be None() or Some(position(astnode)), using the built-in position function.

A name is constructed with NaBL2/Statix syntax (namespace { occurrence }). FlowSpec does not differentiate between declarations and references, names are normalized to their definitions. You can construct pairs with parentheses and commas as usual: (nameexpr, optionexpr).

Consider what should happen to the data at a merge of control-flow. This indicates whether you should use the MaySet or the MustSet lattice.

For the reaching definitions data-flow analysis, we require you to name your analysis reaching. This is used in the grading for the lab.

Error messages

Once you have finished your data-flow analysis, you can use it to generate error messages. We have already provided code in the template that combines the name and flow analyses and gives you access to the resulting analysis object. This analysis object in variable a can be queried with the FlowSpec Stratego API to access the analysis results.

Note that FlowSpec uses normalised names in its results. Therefore when you look up a name with the Stratego API, you should also construct an occurrence from the name you pick out of the AST and resolve it to its definition. Skip ahead to lab 10 for information on how to do this. The analysis information object a in those examples is already available to you. Also have a look at the testing and debugging tips for Stratego code from lab 9.

The strategy error-uninitialized remains for you to implement. This strategy should give back a list of pairs, the first being the ast node to put the error on, the second a string to display. Implement error-uninitialized so that error messages are displayed on every use of a variable or parameter where that variable or parameter may be uninitialized.

Note that there are data helpers strategies for FlowSpec.

error-uninitialized receives a list of ASTs of all the files in the project. The easiest way to deal with this is just to process everything. A handy strategy for this is collect-all.

You can skip ahead to the next lab for some tips about using and debugging Stratego code.


For the challenge we want a slightly different behavior from your implementation than Java. In Java a local variable must be initialized before it can be used, anything else is an error. For this challenge, give a warning instead, iff the local variable is possibly uninitialized at a use site. Change the error message behavior to only raise errors when the local variable is definitely unitialized at a use site.